What is Ketogenic Diet?
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat diet that has been particularly fashionable in recent years. However, it has been used for nearly a hundred years to treat certain pathologies, including epilepsy. The goal of this diet is to significantly reduce carbohydrate intake in favor of fat to provide ketosis. Beyond the significant weight loss, it has many health benefits.
Characteristics of the ketogenic diet:
- Very high-fat consumption (75% of imports))
- Protein intake unchanged
- Significant reduction in carbohydrate intake
- Causes unpleasant symptoms in the first few weeks (ketogenic flu))
- Rapid weight loss
- Ketosis would have many health benefits (increased energy, protection against certain pathologies, etc.).)
The main principles of the regime
Originally ketogenic diet in epilepsy used for children to reduce seizures, the ketogenic or ketonic diet was developed in the 1920s. This diet first demonstrated anticonvulsant effects in epileptics. Then, the keto diet has gained popularity in recent years as a quick method to lose weight. It is also used to improve symptoms of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
The ketogenic diet for weight loss is characterized by the consumption of:
Maximum 50 g of carbohydrate per day. This represents about 5% of the total calories consumed in the day. A normal diet usually provides between 45% and 65% of our calories as carbs.
This diet thus completely reflects our traditional food pyramid and its main principles.
How does the ketogenic diet cause weight loss?
The body usually draws its energy from the carbohydrates consumed during the day, which are necessary for the proper functioning of the body. In the ketogenic diet, because carbohydrates are extremely limited, the body begins to draw on its reserves of carbohydrates maintained at the muscle and liver level, called reserves of “glycogen”. Since each gram of glycogen is bound to 3-4 g of water in the body, the significant weight loss at the start of the ketogenic diet is largely water loss. When glycogen stores are depleted, the body naturally begins to use lipids or grasses to produce energy. When the body uses lipids in the absence of carbohydrates, it produces waste called ketones. Then the ketone bodies begin to accumulate in the blood and their smell, similar to that of the nail polish, becomes perceptible in the whale. This is the main indicator that the body is in a “ketosis” state. It usually takes 2 to 4 weeks to reach this state. The condition of “ketosis” can be checked by obtaining urine test strips from the pharmacy.
This state of “ketosis” causes a marked decrease in appetite, which helps to reduce the amount of food consumed. This condition can also lead to nausea and fatigue. Although this diet does not affect calories, those who follow it actually consume fewer calories because they are not hungry and this leads to weight loss.
Ketogenic diet long term effects on health and does the ketogenic diet last for a long time?
The ketogenic diet specific to weight loss has no time-limited duration. it is more a lifestyle than a fixed-term diet. When used in the therapeutic field, the duration of the ketogenic diet varies from a few weeks to several years depending on the results obtained.
Ketogenic diet list of foods
Foods that are permitted in significant amounts in the plant diet are:
- Vegetable oils
- Lemon juice
- Vegetables poor in carbohydrates (spinach, lettuce, kale, etc.)
- Hard cheese (100 g per day))
The permitted foods, but to be consumed in moderation, are:
- Whole milk
- Whole milk yogurt
- Vegetables with higher carbohydrates (except carrots, beetroot, sweet potatoes, peas, and corn))
- Strong alcohol
- Coffee without sugar
As a large amount of fat is ingested each day, it is important to remember the type of fat consumed. It is advisable to limit the consumption of omega-6 fatty acids which in excess, have a pro-inflammatory effect. The main sources of omega-6 are soy oils, corn, safflower, grape seeds, sunflower, and wheat germ. We must, therefore, limit the consumption of salad dressings, salad dressings and mayonnaise made with these oils.
The consumption of monounsaturated fats (olive oil, avocado, nuts) and saturated fats (fat cuts, dairy products rich in fat) are recommended. The use of coconut oil is recommended because it contains fats that are easily transformed into ketones. Finally, the consumption of omega-3 in fatty fish, rapeseed and flax oil, nuts and chia, flax and hemp seeds should be sufficient.
The ketogenic diet is relatively restrictive, many foods are prohibited because they prevent the organism from remaining in the ketosis state.:
- Sugar products
- Baked goods
- Leguminous crops
- Fruit (excluding berries)))
- Sweet vegetables (beet, corn, carrots, etc.))
- Soft cheese
- Curd cheese
- Soft drinks
- Honey, jams, syrup
- Fruit and vegetable juices
- Sweet Sauces
- Milk or yogurt-based on vegetable beds (soya, almonds, etc.))
- Flavored yogurt
- Sweet fruit Compotes
What to eat in the ketogenic diet? Typical Menu of a day
- Omelettes with 2 eggs and ½ cup spinach and mushrooms
- 100 g of stewed rhubarb
- Roast beef (150 g)
- Green salad (100g) and grated red cabbage (50g))
- 5 black olives
- Salad dressing (2 to 3 tbsp.)
- Snack: black (50g) and gouda cheese (40g))
- Salmon (200 g)
- Asparagus (100g)
- Green salad (50g)
- Dressing (1 to 2 tbsp.)
- 1/2 avocado
- Hard cheese (40g)
- 1/4 cup almonds
Ketogenic diet benefits
- The positive points of the ketogenic regime
- The feeling of satiety
- No calorie restriction
- Good quality fat and protein intake
- Rapid weight loss
- Potential positive effect on blood lipid levels
Ketogenic diet negative effects
- Unpleasant side effects in the first few weeks (ketogenic flu))
- Low food diversity
- No deviation allowed
- Difficult to follow
- Little compatible with a full social life
- Recommendations and clarifications
What is the ketogenic diet side effects?
In the 1st few weeks, terribly unpleasant effects will occur. We’re talking ketogenic contagion. this is often a transit amount that just about perpetually accompanies the passage of the organism into symptom. Caution, some side effects seem to persist even after the transition period such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), dehydration as well as an increased risk of urinary lithiasis or kidney stones and constipation. Fibre and vitamin supplement is recommended if you want to follow this diet, probably due to the low content of fruits, legumes, and whole-grain products that are very good sources of fiber and micronutrients.
Cancer, epilepsy: what are the indications of the therapeutic interest of the ketogenic diet?
In addition to weight loss, the ketogenic diet is used in the treatment of various pathologies: epilepsy, cancers, inflammatory diseases, etc. This is why it was originally created in the 1920s.In the therapeutic field, the value of a ketogenic diet is no longer to be proven.
Is it a diet compatible with bodybuilding and sports?
Yes, I do. Some studies even show the benefits of the ketogenic diet, which allow better performance, a reduction in recovery time and which would facilitate exercise. In recent years, this diet has been very popular in sports.
How do you not regain weight?
The ketogenic diet is more of a lifestyle than a time-limited diet. So, it’s not supposed to be abandoned after a few months. However, given the very severe restrictions it creates, it seems inevitable to gain weight if it is to be stopped. To avoid too much yo-yo effect, it would be beneficial to be accompanied by a nutrition professional who could help gradually reduce carbohydrates in the diet without too many consequences.
In terms of weight loss, it has been shown that the ketogenic diet is more effective than a low-fat diet. Many studies have compared diets low in fat or high in protein and moderately high in carbohydrates to the ketogenic diet. The results show that in the short term (1 year and younger), the ketogenic diet is more effective in weight loss. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of this diet over the longer-term.
The opinion of the dietician on “is keto diet good or bad for you?”
This diet does not really respect the Basic Rules of a balanced diet. It excludes many food groups and seems to forget the notion of pleasure. The withdrawal of grain products, vegetables and fruit can lead to certain deficiencies such as fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants, which play many roles in health. However, it is difficult to deny the demonstrated positive health effects of this diet. While it is difficult to recommend it at this time because of its very restrictive nature, many studies are underway that should make it possible to see a little more clearly in the years to come.